银屑病

疾病简介
银屑病是一种慢性的、非传染性的、疼痛的、毁容的、致残的疾病,无治愈方法,对患者的生存质量(QoL)有着极大的负面影响。任何年龄都有发病可能,最常见于50 至69 岁之间1。各国公布的银屑病患病率在0.09%2至11.43%3之间,因此银屑病是一个严重的全球性难题。
发病原因
银屑病病因尚不明确,证据显示有遗传倾向4。免疫系统在银屑病发病时扮演了何种角色也是研究的热点。尽管有人提出银屑病可能是一种自体免疫性疾病,然而至今没有明确导致这种疾病的自身抗原。外源和内源诱因也可引起银屑病,包括轻微创伤、晒伤、感染、系统用药以及压力5
临床表现
银屑病发于皮肤和指甲,并伴随一系列合并症。皮肤损伤位于局部或全身,对称居多,边界清晰,红疹和斑块,通常覆盖白色或银色的鳞片。皮损引起瘙痒和刺痛。1.3%6至34.7%7的银屑病患者患有慢性炎性关节炎(银屑病性关节炎),导致关节变形和残疾。4.2%至69%的银屑病病人有指甲病变8,9,10。报告称银屑病患者更易患心血管疾病和其他非传染性疾病(NCDs)5,11,12
疾病治疗
银屑病的治疗仍基于控制症状。可用局部和全身治疗以及光线疗法。临床常结合使用以上治疗方法。患者通常需终身治疗缓解疾病。至今为止,还未有完全治愈银屑病的方法。此外,银屑病患者的护理不仅包括治疗皮损及关节损伤,还包括辨别和处理已经出现或可能出现的常见合并症,例如心血管和代谢疾病以及心理疾病。
 
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